One is going to need a quantity of polarizing film (polaroid) for any easily constructed polarizing apparatus. Fortunately, the material is inexpensive and readily available from any number of sources online. When seeking the material for construction one should purchase linear polarizing polaroid rather than the circularly polarizing filters common in photography. Do not hope to luck out with a bargain by purchasing the sort of polarizing film sold for use with LCD screen repair and refurbishment, it will not prove suitable.
The size of the film purchased will vary depending on the sort of apparatus which is planned but in most cases a small piece of five square centimeters (two square inches) is enough. One shouldn’t feel obligated to purchase expensive polaroid whether that expense is attributed to the supposed quality of the film (the perfectness of the polarization) or its thickness or any protective coating. Very often one may have the option to purchase polaroid in varying thickness, and the thicker film is useful for applications that require a large self-supporting filter, but in many cases the thinner product is preferable simply because it is easier to work with.
Not one to miss out on a potential market, Bausch & Lomb marketed a simple polarizing apparatus for users who did not require (or have the budget for) the more complex prism-based variety. Below is seen an exceedingly simple set composed of polarizing film set into light metal frames. One portion is a 21mm disc and the other is of 32mm, a split ring retainer is included. The concise instructions on the reverse of the box direct the user to install the smaller disc in a standard eyepiece by separating the components of the eyepiece so that the disc may rest upon the eyepiece diaphragm. The eyepiece itself then becomes the analyzer which is in this instance the rotating component. The 32mm disc is sized to be compatible with filters used in most substages and serves as the polarizer.
Right away one can see that an essentially identical set may be produced for just a few dollars. If one is loath to risk the cleanliness of an ocular by separating the components to insert the analyzer, a cap may be fashioned that holds the polaroid and fits above the microscopes eyepiece. It will work in precisely the same fashion and has the advantage of not requiring an ocular be put aside for polarizing work only. Regrettably, one will recognize very quickly that such a set, whether the analyzer is integrated with an ocular or placed over it, will not work effectively on a binocular or trinocular microscope.
For microscopes equipped with binocular or trinocular heads, one should place the analyzer in a location such that it acts upon the light prior to that light being sent into the eyepiece or photo tubes. Fortunately it is often a simple matter to remove the microscopes head and place the analyzer within. Once the analyzer is positioned one must look to the way in which the polarizer may be accommodated. In most cases it is not advisable to use a 32mm disc placed in the substage filter holder simply because rotating it once positioned is inconvenient. Very often only a small effort need be expended to create a holder that may be placed in the substage to facilitate rotating the polarizer. In any case one should endeavor to arrange polarizer and analyzer so that both may be quickly removed or installed, and one of the two is rotatable.
In the photograph at right one can see that a simple disk of polarizing film has been placed intermediate to the objective turret and trinocular head of this AO Spencer Microstar microscope to serve as the analyzer. A rotating polarizer has been constructed from a plastic film canister lid and aluminum screw cap, it fits conveniently in the 32mm filter recess of the microscopes integrated illuminator. By virtue of the microscopes construction only one finger screw needs to be loosened to remove the head and place the analyzer. For ease of handling, and so that it may serve double duty the analyzer was cut to a size of 32mm and may be used as the polarizer when placed in the substage filter holder of a monocular microscope. One should note that the polarizer is of a size that no light may pass out of the integrated illuminator that does not pass through the polarizer.
Next time: eye-candy! A few nice photomicrographs of slides with bright-filed and polarized light. -K